PowerShell 技能连载 - 正确地排序 IPv4 地址

在前一个示例中我们发布了一个超快的名为 Test-OnlieFast 的函数,并且这个函数可以在短时间内 ping 整个 IP 段:

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PS> $iprange = 1..200 | ForEach-Object { "192.168.189.$_" }

PS> Test-OnlineFast -ComputerName $iprange

Address Online DNSName Status
------- ------ ------- ------
192.168.189.200 True DESKTOP-7AAMJLF.fritz.box Success
192.168.189.1 True fritz.box Success
192.168.189.134 True PCSUP03.fritz.box Success
192.168.189.29 True fritz.repeater Success
192.168.189.64 True android-6868316cec604d25.fritz.box Success
192.168.189.142 True Galaxy-S8.fritz.box Success
192.168.189.65 True mbecker-netbook.fritz.box Success
192.168.189.30 True android-7f35f4eadd9e425e.fritz.box Success
192.168.189.10 False Request Timed Out
192.168.189.100 False Request Timed Out
192.168.189.101 False Request Timed Out
(...)

然而,IP 地址列并没有排序过。当然您可以使用 Sort-Object 来实现,但是由于地址中的数据是字符串格式,所以它会按字母排序。

以下是一个可以正确地对 IPv4 地址排序的简单技巧:

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PS> Test-OnlineFast -ComputerName $iprange | Sort-Object { $_.Address -as [Version]}

基本上,您通过 Sort-Object 将数据转换为 Version 对象,它刚好像 IPv4 地址一样,也是由四位数字组成。由于如果数据无法转换时,操作符 -as 将返回 NULL 结果,任何 IPv6 地址将会出现在列表的顶部(未排序)。

如果您错过了之前的 Test-OnlineFast 代码,以下再次把它贴出来:

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function Test-OnlineFast
{
param
(
# make parameter pipeline-aware
[Parameter(Mandatory,ValueFromPipeline)]
[string[]]
$ComputerName,

$TimeoutMillisec = 1000
)

begin
{
# use this to collect computer names that were sent via pipeline
[Collections.ArrayList]$bucket = @()

# hash table with error code to text translation
$StatusCode_ReturnValue =
@{
0='Success'
11001='Buffer Too Small'
11002='Destination Net Unreachable'
11003='Destination Host Unreachable'
11004='Destination Protocol Unreachable'
11005='Destination Port Unreachable'
11006='No Resources'
11007='Bad Option'
11008='Hardware Error'
11009='Packet Too Big'
11010='Request Timed Out'
11011='Bad Request'
11012='Bad Route'
11013='TimeToLive Expired Transit'
11014='TimeToLive Expired Reassembly'
11015='Parameter Problem'
11016='Source Quench'
11017='Option Too Big'
11018='Bad Destination'
11032='Negotiating IPSEC'
11050='General Failure'
}


# hash table with calculated property that translates
# numeric return value into friendly text

$statusFriendlyText = @{
# name of column
Name = 'Status'
# code to calculate content of column
Expression = {
# take status code and use it as index into
# the hash table with friendly names
# make sure the key is of same data type (int)
$StatusCode_ReturnValue[([int]$_.StatusCode)]
}
}

# calculated property that returns $true when status -eq 0
$IsOnline = @{
Name = 'Online'
Expression = { $_.StatusCode -eq 0 }
}

# do DNS resolution when system responds to ping
$DNSName = @{
Name = 'DNSName'
Expression = { if ($_.StatusCode -eq 0) {
if ($_.Address -like '*.*.*.*')
{ [Net.DNS]::GetHostByAddress($_.Address).HostName }
else
{ [Net.DNS]::GetHostByName($_.Address).HostName }
}
}
}
}

process
{
# add each computer name to the bucket
# we either receive a string array via parameter, or
# the process block runs multiple times when computer
# names are piped
$ComputerName | ForEach-Object {
$null = $bucket.Add($_)
}
}

end
{
# convert list of computers into a WMI query string
$query = $bucket -join "' or Address='"

Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_PingStatus -Filter "(Address='$query') and timeout=$TimeoutMillisec" |
Select-Object -Property Address, $IsOnline, $DNSName, $statusFriendlyText
}

}

本文国际来源:Sort IPv4 Addresses Correctly

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